السّيارَةُ الْجميلُ لونُها – Is there a mistake?

No, there isn’t!

If you thought that the word الْجَمِيل should be written with a ة, you might have misunderstood the meaning of the sentence. The second part of the sentence is a so called causative descrip­tion (نَعْت سَبَبِيّ). The sentence …السيارةُ الجميلُ لونُها means: The car whose col­our is beautiful. Or: The car with the beautiful colour.

Watch out! The sentence doesn’t mean: The colour of the nice car

Let us make the difference clear:

نَعْت حَقِيقِيّ

The successful student.

الطَّالِبُ النَّاجِحُ.

نَعْت سَبَبِيّ

The student whose sister is successful

الطَّالِبُ النَّاجِحةُ أُخْتُهُ

Let us check the different parts of the النَّعْت السَّبَبِيّ

نَعْت مُؤَنَّث

Although it is a نَعْت, it doesn’t describe what precedes, but what comes after it.

The word sister (أُخْت) is the thing being de­scribed (مَوْصُوف) because it is not the (male) student, who is successful.

النَّاجِحةُ

فاعِل

Subject; the thing which is being described.

أُخْتُهُ

In order to understand the exact meaning of the نَعْت سَّبَبِيّ you could rewrite the sen­tence with a relative clause اِسمْ إشارة

الطَّالِبُ الذي نَجَحَتْ أُخْتُهُ

These are the rules for the النَّعْت السَّبَبِيّ:

1

The النَّعْت السَّبَبِيّ is always singular and comes before the subject of the sentence (فاعِل) which is a اِسْم مَرْفُوع

2

It agrees with the preceding اِسْم in:

* definite/indefinite form (تَعْريف/تَنْكِير)

* إِعْراب

3

It agrees with the following اِسْم – which is the فاعِل – in:

* gender (masculine/feminine) (تَنْكِير/ تَأْنِيث)

4

The noun after it (فاعِل) takes the pronoun which refers to the first subject in the sentence! Notice: the فاعِل is always مَرْفُوع

Let us have a look at some examples to understand the rules:

The man whose brother is honour­able came.

جاءَ الرَّجُلُ الْفاضِلُ أَخُوهُ.

The man whose two brothers are honourable came.

جاءَ الرَّجُلُ الْفاضِلُ أَخَواهُ.

Two men whose two brothers are honourable came.

جاءَ رَجُلانِ فاضِلٌ أَخَواهُما.

The two men whose sisters are hon­ourable came.

جاءَ الرَّجُلانِ الْفاضِلةُ أَخَواتُهُما.

Ladies whose sisters are honour­able came.

جاءَتْ سَيِّداتٌ فاضِلةٌ أَخَواتُهُنَّ.

A summary:

  • The النَّعْت الْحَقِيقِيّ always comes after the noun which it de­scribes. It follows the noun in gender, negated/not neg­ated, case and singular/dual/plural.

  • The النَّعْت السَّبَبِيّ always comes before the thing which it de­scribes. It is always singular!