Number of roots in Arabic
Now, let’s got straight to our question:
What is the total number of roots in Arabic?
Number of roots in Hans Wehr
There are many Arabic dictionaries. Hans Wehr’s Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (named after a German scholar, published in 1952) is the most complete dictionary of Standard Arabic ever published in the West. It contains 2967 roots (جِذْر) with 3 letters and 362 with 4 letters.
Number of roots in Lisan al-Arab
The most famous dictionary of Classical Arabic is Lisān al-‘Arab (لِسان الْعَرَب), compiled by Ibn Manzūr (ابْن مَنْظُور) in the early 14th century (711 AH). It contains around 80,000 entries and in total (3 + 4 letters + foreign words) 9273 roots.
Mathematically possible number of roots
Since the Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters (consonant phonemes) there are 21,952 theoretical combinations (=283) of roots with three radicals. However, certain combinations are impossible (with few exceptions):
- There is no Arabic root which consists of three identical consonants.
- There are no Arabic roots with identical consonants in the first and second position.
- There are almost no Arabic roots with identical consonants in the first and third position. An exception would be قلق (@Erik – thanks for telling me; see comment).
- However, there are roots whose second and third letter are identical, for example, to pass (م–ر–ر).
Taking into account all possible restrictions, the theoretical number of all possible combinations of roots (morphemes) with three letters is 6332.
What are the most common root letters?
n Hans Wehr, the most common root letter is ر (722 times). The ظ is the least common: only 42 times (1.4 %). The ن is the most common first radical (235 times).
A joke about Arabic roots
The joke goes as follows.
Every root denotes four things:
- its basic concept
- the opposite
- something related to a camel or horse
- and something so obscene you need to look it up for yourself.
Okay, this is only a joke, but it may work quite well with the root جمل.
Picture credit: Image by Erzsébet Apostol from Pixabay