In this blog post we will examine a pretty tricky expression: لَبَّيْكَ
Let us check it step by step
1. The root:
It is ل – ب – ى . This root is only used as a II-verb and means to follow, to obey (a call, an invitation), to say “labbaika”.
2. The مَصْدَر:
The مَصْدَر of لَبَّي – a form-II-verb (فَعَّلَ) – would be تَلْبِية . But we don’t use this word for our expression. Instead, we use لَبٌّ which is the so called اِسْم الْمَصْدَر of the verb لَبَّى. If you are not sure what a ism al-Masdar is, click here.
3. Form the dual:
The word لَبٌّ is put into the dual form for the sake of corroboration (emphasis). It has somehow the meaning of: “answer after answer“, “saying after saying“, etc. –> أُلَبِّي لَبَّيْكَ=تَلْبِيَة بَعْدَ تَلْبِيَة
Check the table below for other examples. The dual is لَبَّانِ in مَرْفُوع (nominative case) or لَبَّيْنِ in مَجْرُور or مَنْصُوب (genitive, accusative case).
4. Put the word into the accusative case/مَنْصُوب:
Why is that? Let us explain this by the famous Arabic expression سُبْحانَ اللَّهِ (Praise Allah! Or: God be praised!)
This expression (similar to “labbaika”) is used as an exclamation of surprise – a special form of the أُسْلُوب التَّعَجُّب.
Grammatically speaking, سُبْحانَ is a so called اِسْم مَصْدَر and is used as an absolute object – مَفْعُول مُطْلَق – which always has to be مَنْصُوب/accusative.
Many common expressions in Arabic have a مَفْعُولٌ مُطْلَقٌ serving as the first part of a إضافة-construction (see Arabic for Nerds 2, question #320)
Actually there is no other application. This word is only used as a مَفْعُول مُطْلَق. So we need لَبَّيْنِ for our example.
5. Add the personal pronoun:
As we connect the personal pronoun you (you here refers to Allah) and since we use the word as a مَفْعُول مُطْلَق the ن is elided – because it is connected to a personal pronoun.
Finally, we get: لَبَّيْكَ
There are a bunch of expressions that are constructed in a similar way using a مَفْعُول مُطْلَق (sometimes in connection with the dual form, for example: سَعْدَيْكَ)
Here are some common expressions:
|Praise God!||أُسَبِّحُ اللَّه تَسْبِيحًا||سُبْحانَ اللَّهِ|
God save (protect) me (us) from that!
|أَعْوُذُ بِاللَّهِ مَعاذًا||مَعاذَ اللَّهِ|
|Here I am! At your service!||أُلِبُّ لَكَ إِلْبابًا or أَلُبُّ لَكَ لَبًّا||لَبَّيْكَ|
|And all good is in your hands.||أسْعَدْتُكَ إسعادًا بَعْدَ إسعادٍ||سَعْدَيْكَ|
picture credit: Image by ziedkammoun from Pixabay